North of the 55th parallel, the landscape is very different from one place to another. This immense tundra is made up of boreal forests, plains, and spectacular mountains such the Puvirnituq Mountains,the Torngat Mountains and the Tursujuq national park area.  As well, there are many lakes and rivers with sides carved by both fjords and the sea.

This area features black spruce, tamarack, and shrubs in the area to the treeline. Vegetation is rare, except during the summer when flowers and berries are plentiful and varied.

Many types of mammals, both terrestrial (like muskox, caribou, and polar bear) and aquatic (like whale, seal, and walrus) live in this region. There are also many types of birds and fish in this area.

The Inuit live in an Arctic climate. Winters are difficult and nights are long and cold. Summers are very short. Average temperatures vary between -24°C in winter and 12°C on the hottest days of summer.

The village of Ivujivik is located less than 500 km from the Arctic Circle and is the northernmost community in Quebec. If you visit Ivujivik in January, temperatures range from -21 to -29°C. In July, it only reaches 4 to 10°C.

The number of hours of sunshine each day varies greatly: The most northern villages have about 20 hours of daylight during the summer but only 5 during the winter.

The Inuit have had to adapt to the permafrost which means that the ground is almost always frozen except for a few centimeters at the surface during a few short weeks during the summer. Because of this phenomenon, it is impossible to dig and install an underground system of aqueducts or sewers. Permafrost also makes it difficult to build roads.

Author:  Based on texts from the Récit de l’univers social.  Adapted with additions by LEARN.

 

Additional Images and More Recent Times!

Important concepts and big ideas:

Treeline,  Tundra, Waterways, Mountain Ranges,

Sustainability
Sustainable land use
Vegetation – Végétation
Adapt to the environment – S’adapter à l’environnement
Transportation routes – voies de transport